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Dr Ruairidh Battleday and Dr Anna-Katharine Brem from the University of Oxford and Harvard Medical School evaluated all research papers on cognitive enhancement with modafinil from January 1990 to December 2014. They found 24 studies dealing with different benefits associated with taking modafinil, including planning and decision making, flexibility, learning and memory, and creativity.
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Unsurprisingly, they found that the performance-enhancing capacity of modafinil varied according to the task. What emerged was that the longer and more complex the task tested, the more consistently modafinil conferred cognitive benefits.
Modafinil made no difference to working memory, or flexibility of thought, but did improve decision-making and planning. Very encouragingly, the 70% of studies that looked at the effects of modafinil on mood and side effects showed very little overall effect, although a couple reported insomnia, headache, stomach ache or nausea (which were also reported in the placebo group).
Ruairidh McLennan Battleday said: 'This is the first overview of modafinil's actions in non-sleep-deprived individuals since 2008, and so we were able to include a lot of recent data. Interestingly, we found that the type of test used to assess modafinil's cognitive benefits has changed over the last few decades. In the past, people were using very basic tests of cognition, developed for neurologically-impaired individuals. In contrast, more recent studies have, in general, used more complex tests: when these are used, it appears that modafinil more reliably enhances cognition: in particular 'higher' brain functions that rely on contribution from multiple simple cognitive processes.'
Anna-Katharine Brem, a researcher at both the University of Oxford and Harvard Medical School, said: 'We ended up having two main conclusions: first, that, in the face of vanishingly few side effects in these controlled environments, modafinil can be considered a cognitive enhancer; and, second that we need to figure out better ways of testing normal or even supra-normal cognition in a reliable manner. However, we would like to stress the point that with any method used to enhance cognition, ethical considerations always have to be taken into account: this is an important avenue for future work to explore.'
Professor Guy Goodwin, President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) commented: 'This overview suggests that, on current evidence, modafinil enhances cognition independent of its known effects in sleep disordered populations. Thus, the authors say that 'modafinil may well deserve the title of the first well-validated pharmaceutical nootropic agent'. In other words, it's the first real example of a 'smart drug', which can genuinely help, for example, with exam preparation. Previous ethical discussion of such agents has tended to assume extravagant effects before it was clear that there were any. If correct, the present update means the ethical debate is real: how should we classify, condone or condemn a drug that improves human performance in the absence of pre-existing cognitive impairment?
'As the authors point out, modafinil is not licensed for this use, and it will not be because it would be outside the current terms of reference of regulatory bodies. The non-medical use of mind altering drugs has hitherto broadly conflicted with the work ethic of many societies, has been very popular but leads to a range of demonstrable harms. Regulation has been and remains problematic. We cannot know either if demand for modafinil in the same societies will actually be significant, whether society will be more accepting and how regulation will then be framed.'
Cognitive enhancing drugs are claimed to improve cognitive functions such as learning and attention. However, little is known presently about the characteristics of off-prescription cognitive enhancing drug users or their perceived everyday experience with these drugs. As modafinil is the most commonly used off-prescription cognitive enhancing drug, the current study aimed to provide a detailed profile of modafinil users and their experiences and perceptions of this drug. To this end, an online survey, targeting cognitive enhancing drug users and students, was advertised on forum sites. Information was obtained regarding demographic data, illicit drug use, psychiatric diagnosis and experience of modafinil. Of the 404 respondents, 219 reported taking modafinil. Of these the majority were male, American or British, university-educated and currently employed, with a mean age of 27. Overall, modafinil was perceived by users as being safe. Modafinil users reported higher levels of illicit drug use and psychiatric diagnosis than would be expected from population-based data. More frequent reported modafinil use was associated with higher numbers of perceived benefits whilst reported frequency of use was not associated with the number of perceived risks. There was also a tentative link between the reported use of modafinil and the reported presence of psychiatric disorders, largely depression and anxiety. Respondents who had reported a psychiatric diagnosis declared higher subjective benefits of modafinil. This may suggest further beneficial effects of modafinil or it may reflect insufficient medical treatment for psychiatric disorders in some people. Overall, the findings of the current study should be beneficial in informing clinicians and legislative bodies about the modafinil user profile and how modafinil is perceived.
Background: There are reports of prescription stimulants being purchased online for use as cognitive enhancers or "smart drugs." Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate availability of modafinil and methylphenidate from internet suppliers from the perspective of a typical United Kingdom (UK) based customer. Methods: Using European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) internet snapshot methodology, we undertook an English language internet snapshot survey in July-August 2018 to gather information on the availability and price of modafinil and methylphenidate from online retailers. Results: A total of 55 modafinil and 14 methylphenidate websites were identified from which the drug could be purchased without a prescription. Minimum purchase quantities ranged from 10 to 90 tablets for modafinil and 1-1,005 tablets for methylphenidate with no apparent upper limit to the number that could be purchased. The price per tablet varied from 0.38-5.31 for modafinil and 0.16-5.70 for methylphenidate. Free shipping was offered if more than a certain amount was spent on 46 (83.6%) modafinil and 7 (50.0%) methylphenidate websites and discounts were offered on 43 (78.2%) modafinil and 4 (28.6%) methylphenidate websites. Conclusions: Modafinil and methylphenidate are widely available to purchase via internet from the UK without a prescription. The pricing on websites encourages users to buy greater quantities to qualify for discounts and free shipping. The quantities available suggest these purchases may be used in greater amounts than would be legitimately prescribed, increasing the risk of misuse or diversion to other individuals.
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